Aim: There are numerous questions regarding the management of children with hypermetropia, such as what level of hypermetropia should be prescribed. The aim of this review is to evaluate the findings reported in the literature and to determine the areas where further research is required.
Methods: A literature search of databases was performed, focusing on publications from the last 10 years.
Results: The reported prevalence of hypermetropia in children ranges from 0.9% to 12.8%, depending on the age at test and definition of hypermetropia. There is no consensus on when to prescribe for hypermetropia but there is evidence to suggest that early correction results in fewer cases of amblyopia and strabismus. In addition hypermetropia has been shown to be associated with poorer reading and writing skills. The process of emmetropisation is affected by a number of factors, including preterm birth and strabismus, hut the pattern of eye growth varies according to the type of strabismus present. Results of refractive surgery have been very successful only in relatively low degrees of hypermetropia.
Conclusion: Although there is considerable variation in the opinion on when to prescribe, the evidence suggests that early identification and correction of hypermetropia of 4 dioptres or above is probably beneficial in terms of preventing cases of amblyopia and strabismus and improving performance in many areas of development. There is still debate concerning the correction of lower amounts of hypermetropia and on the optimum method of identification and treatment.
How to Cite:
O’Connor, A.R., 2008. Hypermetropia in childhood: a review of research relating to clinical management. British and Irish Orthoptic Journal, 5, pp.15–21. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22599/bioj.223